There is a chart on page 161 of the text. Please consult it. Students will be
responsible for knowing all of those ions. Here are some clues, followed by the ions that
are on the list:
All positively charged ions (cations) come from metals and are named directly from the element name plus the word "ion", ie hydrogen ion.
Some metals can have several differently charged ions, so the name of each ion must be
All negatively charged ions are named by adding "ide" to the end after
chopping off part (the amount that is chopped off varies, according to what sounds good)
of the end of the element name:
The book uses the cross-over method, and this method is highly successful for most people. So refer to the book for an explanation of that method. Here is another way to approach these problems. Please look at the picture for calcium chloride.
Polyatomic ions contain more than one type of atom. Table 6.2 on page 166 of the text
lists many common polyatomic ions. You should know the names, formulas and charges for
Here are the ionic compounds potassium phosphate and calcium phosphate.
The prefixes: mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nano and deca are used to name covalent compounds.
You should know the names and structures for these covalent compounds:
The molar mass for every element is located on your periodic table, under the symbol for each element. These molar masses mean that there are 12 grams per mole of carbon. These molar masses are used to find the molar masses of molecules.
The molar mass of carbon dioxide is
The molar mass of Potassium phosphate is
This analogous to balancing your check book: what goes in has to come out! Only it is so much easier to balance reactions than it is to balance a checkbook. Here is the combustion of pentane reaction.
Hereis the combustion of hydrogen reaction.
1. What is the name of NaNO3?
2. What is the formula of sodium carbonate?
3. How many oxygen atoms are present in nitrous oxide?
4. How many oxygen atoms are present in iron(III) oxide?
5. What is the formula for sodium acetate?
6. What is the molar mass of sodium acetate?
7. How many grams of water can be formed from combusting 10 grams of pentane? Here is the balanced equation for this reaction.
8. How many molecules are in a mole?
9. How many atoms are in a mole?
Backto "The Chemicals in Your Life"
Back to "Environmental Chemistry".
Copyright © 1995 Koni Stone