Final Review
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Final Review Suggestions

The final exam is a standardized exam prepared by the American Chemical Society. It contains material from both the general chemistry courses (1100/1102 and 1110/1112). This is a multiple choice exam consisting of about 75 problems.  There undoubtedly will be some material on the exam you have not encountered before.  Focus your efforts on the topics presented in your coursework.

Bring a Scan-tron (882-ES), approved calculator, and #2 pencil.  Answer every question since there is no penalty for guesses.  (Educated guesses generally have a higher success rate!)  The questions asked are those which lend themselves to a multiple choice format.

The following are suggestions for preparing for the exam:

Review all of the previous exams given in both CHEM 1100 and 1110.
Work on additional problems in areas you have struggled with previously (old exams).
Look over the Skills You Should Have Mastered section at the end of each chapter.
Know the following: alkane, alkene, alkyne, alcohol, isomer, acetic acid, acetate - see Ch.11.
Form study groups and ask each other questions such as the chapter examples.

Some suggested topics you may wish to review:

1. Substances, Compounds and elements
    Units and measurements (mass, volume, length, etc.)
    Temperature scales, conversions
    Significant figures, Unit factor method
    Density

2. Atomic Weights
    Avogadro's number, molecular mass, mole conversions
    Percent composition, empirical formulas
    Chemical equations, stoichiometry, % yield, limiting reagents
    Concentration (% by mass, molarity, molality, ppm, mole fraction)

3. Electrons, protons, and neutrons (definition, discovery, early experiments)
    Atomic mass, mass number
    Nuclear stability and reactions, fission and fusion, modes of nuclear decay (alpha, beta, gamma)
    Wave/Particle concept of electrons ("duality")
    Electromagnetic radiation, atomic spectra line spectra
    Quantum picture of atom, quantum numbers, shapes of orbitals
    Electronic configurations, Aufbau Principle, diamagnetism and paramagnetism

4. Periodic trends of the elements (Periodic Table)
    Periodic properties (ionization energy, electron affinity, radii, electronegativity)
    Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids
    Ionic, covalent bonds (polar and nonpolar), description of bonds (single, double, triple)
    Polyatomic ions and molecules, Lewis dot formulas
    Octet rule and limitations, expanded octet, resonance delocalization, oxidation numbers
    VSEPR theory and Valence Bond theory
    Sigma and Pi bonds, hybridization geometries
    Molecular Orbital theory, energy level diagrams, bond order (homo- and heteronuclear molecules)

5. Strong and weak electrolytes, strong and weak acids/bases
    Types of chemical reactions (combination, displacement, metathesis, redox, acid/base, etc.)
    Theories of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, Lewis), properties of acids/bases
    Autoionization of water, pH scale, concentrations of species in solution

6. Gases, Liquids, and Solids (compare/contrast properties)
    Gas Laws (Boyle, Charles, Ideal)
    Standard molar volume (22.4L), Dalton's Law of partial pressure
    Kinetic-molecular theory of gases, Graham's law of diffusion
    Colligative properties of solutions versus pure substances (melting point, boiling point, vapor pressure)
    Intermolecular forces of attraction, surface tension, capillary action, crystal lattices and types of solids
    Metallic bonding, phase diagrams, phase changes and enthalpy

7. Enthalpy and entropy changes of reactions, Gibbs free energy, spontaneity of reactions
    1st, 2nd & 3rd Laws of Thermodynamics, defined standard states
    Equilibria, equilibrium constant expression, calculations, reaction quotient (general, acid/base, solubility product)
    Hess' Law
    Le Chatelier's Principle and applications
    Electrochemistry, relationship of cell potential (E) to Gibbs free energy (DG) to equilibrium constant (K, Q)

8. Kinetics, rate of reaction
    Reaction order, rate law of a reaction, determination by initial rate and integrated forms, half-life
    Mechanisms, catalysis
    Energy of activation (Ea), rate constants, temperature dependence
    Reaction diagrams (energy vs. reaction progress)

 

Created by Shane Phillips, shane@chem.csustan.edu
Last Edited on May 1, 1998